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DNA Testing Centre, Inc.

 

 

What is DNA?

bullet DNA is an abbreviation for Deoxyribonucleic Acid
bullet A piece of a chromosome that dictates a particular trait is called a gene.
bullet Each DNA strand is 10 atoms wide.
bullet The DNA strands in your body stretched out would be about 500 million miles long.
bullet There are so many millions of base pairs in each person's DNA that every person has a different sequence.


A DNA molecule consists of a twisted spiral called a double helix.  DNA is found inside genes, inside chromosomes, inside the nucleus of a cell.  Each chromosome is made up of a tightly coiled strand, a molecule of DNA.  The bases in the opposite strands are arranged such that where there is an adenine in one strand, the other strand has a thymine and where there is a guanine in one strand, the other strand has a cytosine.

Each strand is made up of a sugar covalently linked to a phosphate which is covalently linked to another sugar and so on. A DNA strand may contain thousands to millions of these sugar-phosphate units.
Each sugar also has a purine or pyrimidine base attached to it through a covalent bond.

Both of the egg and sperm hold DNA. Each child receives 23 chromosomes from its mother and 23 from its father. Every cell except for the red blood cell carries a blueprint of DNA. A molecule of DNA holds coded plans for thousands of proteins and the length of the strand is called a gene.

Each strand of DNA is formed by units of phosphate (P) joined with units of deoxyribose (D).  These units alternate to make the bases of a strand of DNA.

P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P-D-P

The two side strands are connected by the two bases. The four possible pairs are A,T or T,A G,C or C,G.

Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. There are about 20 amino acids that establish the character of proteins. Three of those amino acids are phenylalanine, valine and isolencine.

What is DNA Testing and PCR?

bullet Please see this excellent article online at Scientific.org.

What is the difference between Mitochondrial DNA and Nuclear DNA?

Need Detailed Information for a School Project?

Please see this excellent article online at the National Center for Biotechnology Information about DNA and cell structure.

 

 

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