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Direct Sequencing Mitochondrial DNA

For maternal  lineage

 

REASONS FOR USING MITOCHONDRIAL

bulletThese markers occur in males and females and are inherited through the maternal line. 
bulletForensic Casework
bulletAnalyze sample materials that are not suitable for nuclear DNA
bulletTest hair strands without the root
bulletTest highly degraded tissue and samples
bulletTest skeletal remains
bulletMaternity Testing
bulletSibling Studies (from the same mother)
bulletGrandmaternity (from the same grandmother)
bulletGenealogy Studies
bulletMaternal kinship analysis

Example of MtDNA use
(all share same MtDNA sequence)

 

REASONS FOR NOT USING MITOCHONDRIAL

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Used for determining maternal relationships only

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Results take months to complete (no stat testing available)

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The specific tested alleles cannot be compared against standard PCR tested alleles

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Disadvantage for forensics is the inability to recombine markers

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Cannot use the product rule when determining the probability of an ID match

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Cannot differentiate between direct maternal relatives

 

SAMPLE LINEAR mtDNA REPORTS

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This link will provide examples of matching and non-matching linear MtDNA reports.
 (requires Adobe Acrobat)

ISO17025 DIRECT SEQUENCING VALIDATION IN PROCESS

PLEASE CALL 888-875-7574 FOR DIRECT SEQUENCING PRICING AND SCHEDULE 

Watch for our new mtDNA.us website

 
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Direct Sequencing Information

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Mitochondria are in cytoplasm – providing energy for the cell 

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All cytoplasm comes from the egg or ovum 

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All mitochondria are inherited from mother only; sperm donates only nucleus to zygote

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No recombination 

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No paternal contribution

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Contains 37 genes in two main regions

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Non-coding region control’s mtDNA

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Coding region contains 37 genes

 

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Gene categories: 

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22 tRNAs (translation RNA) 

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2 rRNAs (ribosomal RNA –translation)

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13 genes used in cellular energy production

 

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16,569 base pairs in mitochondrion DNA compared to 3,200,000 in nuclear DNA.

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Two hypervariable regions –Within D-loop –HV1 and HV2

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Human mtDNA has been entirely sequenced

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First in 1981 (Anderson et al) 

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Confirmed in 1999 (Andrews et al) 

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Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS) with a revised version (rCRS) 

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Most other mtDNA is compared to the revised Cambridge reference sequence

 

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Cambridge Reference Sequence (NCBI Reference Sequence: NC_012920.1) with HV1 and HV2 highlighted.

1 gatcacaggt ctatcaccct attaaccact cacgggagct ctccatgcat ttggtatttt
61 cgtctggggg gt2atgcacgc gatagcattg cgagacgctg gagccggagc accctatgtc
121 gcagtatctg tctttgattc ctgcctcatc ctattattta tcgcacctac gttcaatatt
181 acaggcgaac atacttacta aagtgtgtta attaattaat gcttgtagga cataataata
241 acaattgaat gtctgcacag ccActttcca cacagacatc ataacaaaaa atttccacca
301 aaccccccct CCCCCgcttc tggccacagc acttaaacac atctctgcca aaccccaaaa
361 acaaagaacc ctaacaccag cctaaccaga tttcaaattt tatcttttgg cggtatgcac
421 ttttaacagt caccccccaa ctaacacatt attttcccct cccactccca tactactaat
481 ctcatcaata caacccccgc ccatcctacc cagcacacac acaccgctgc taaccccata
541 ccccgaacca accaaacccc aaagacaccc cccacagttt atgtagctta cctcctcaaa
601 gcaatacact gaaaatgttt agacgggctc acatcacccc ataaacaaat aggtttggtc
661 ctagcctttc tattagctct tagtaagatt acacatgcaa gcatccccgt tccagtgagt
721 tcaccctcta aatcaccacg atcaaaaggA acaagcatca agcacgcagc aatgcagctc
781 aaaacgctta gcctagccac acccccacgg gaaacagcag tgattaacct ttagcaataa
841 acgaaagttt aactaagcta tactaacccc agggttggtc aatttcgtgc cagccaccgc
901 ggtcacacga ttaacccaag tcaatagaag ccggcgtaaa gagtgtttta gatcaccccc
961 tccccaataa agctaaaact cacctgagtt gtaaaaaact ccagttgaca caaaatagac
1021 tacgaaagtg gctttaacat atctgaacac acaatagcta agacccaaac tgggattaga
1081 taccccacta tgcttagccc taaacctcaa cagttaaatc aacaaaactg ctcgccagaa
1141 cactacgagc cacagcttaa aactcaaagg acctggcggt gcttcatatc cctctagagg
1201 agcctgttct gtaatcgata aaccccgatc aacctcacca cctcttgctc agcctatata
1261 ccgccatctt cagcaaaccc tgatgaaggc tacaaagtaa gcgcaagtac ccacgtaaag
1321 acgttaggtc aaggtgtagc ccatgaggtg gcaagaaatg ggctacattt tctaccccag
1381 aaaactacga tagcccttat gaaacttaag ggtcgaaggt ggatttagca gtaaactAag
1441 agtagagtgc ttagttgaac agggccctga agcgcgtaca caccgcccgt caccctcctc
1501 aagtatactt caaaggacat ttaactaaaa cccctacgca tttatataga ggagacaagt
1561 cgtaacatgg taagtgtact ggaaagtgca cttggacgaa ccagagtgta gcttaacaca
1621 aagcacccaa cttacactta ggagatttca acttaacttg accgctctga gctaaaccta
1681 gccccaaacc cactccacct tactaccaga caaccttagc caaaccattt acccaaataa
1741 agtataggcg atagaaattg aaacctggcg caatagatat agtaccgcaa gggaaagatg
1801 aaaaattata accaagcata atatagcaag gactaacccc tataccttct gcataatgaa
1861 ttaactagaa ataactttgc aaggagagcc aaagctaaga cccccgaaac cagacgagct
1921 acctaagaac agctaaaaga gcacacccgt ctatgtagca aaatagtggg aagatttata
1981 ggtagaggcg acaaacctac cgagcctggt gatagctggt tgtccaagat agaatcttag
2041 ttcaacttta aatttgccca cagaaccctc taaatcccct tgtaaattta actgttagtc
2101 caaagaggaa cagctctttg gacactagga aaaaaccttg tagagagagt aaaaaattta
2161 acacccatag taggcctaaa agcagccacc aattaagaaa gcgttcaagc tcaacaccca
2221 ctacctaaaa aatcccaaac atataactga actcctcaca cccaattgga ccaatctatc
2281 accctataga agaactaatg ttagtataag taacatgaaa acattctcct ccgcataagc
2341 ctgcgtcaga ttaaaacact gaactgacaa ttaacagccc aatatctaca atcaaccaac
2401 aagtcattat taccctcact gtcaacccaa cacaggcatg ctcataagga aaggttaaaa
2461 aaagtaaaag gaactcggca aatcttaccc cgcctgttta ccaaaaacat cacctctagc
2521 atcaccagta ttagaggcac cgcctgccca gtgacacatg tttaacggcc gcggtaccct
2581 aaccgtgcaa aggtagcata atcacttgtt ccttaaatag ggacctgtat gaatggctcc
2641 acgagggttc agctgtctct tacttttaac cagtgaaatt gacctgcccg tgaagaggcg
2701 ggcataacac agcaagacga gaagacccta tggagcttta atttattaat gcaaacagta
2761 cctaacaaac ccacaggtcc taaactacca aacctgcatt aaaaatttcg gttggggcga
2821 cctcggagca gaacccaacc tccgagcagt acatgctaag acttcaccag tcaaagcgaa
2881 ctactatact caattgatcc aataacttga ccaacggaac aagttaccct agggataaca
2941 gcgcaatcct attctagagt ccatatcaac aatagggttt acgacctcga tgttggatca
3001 ggacatcccg atggtgcagc cgctattaaa ggttcgtttg ttcaacgatt aaagtcctac
3061 gtgatctgag ttcagaccgg agtaatccag gtcggtttct atctacNttc aaattcctcc
3121 ctgtacgaaa ggacaagaga aataaggcct acttcacaaa gcgccttccc ccgtaaatga
3181 tatcatctca acttagtatt atacccacac ccacccaaga acagggtttg ttaagatggc
3241 agagcccggt aatcgcataa aacttaaaac tttacagtca gaggttcaat tcctcttctt
3301 aacaacatac ccatggccaa cctcctactc ctcattgtac ccattctaat cgcaatggca
3361 ttcctaatgc ttaccgaacg aaaaattcta ggctatatac aactacgcaa aggccccaac
3421 gtTgtaggcc cctacgggct actacaaccc ttcgctgacg ccataaaact cttcaccaaa
3481 gagcccctaa aacccgccac atctaccatc accctctaca tcaccgcccc gaccttagct
3541 ctcaccatcg ctcttctact atgaaccccc ctccccatac ccaaccccct ggtcaacctc
3601 aacctaggcc tcctatttat tctagccacc tctagcctag ccgtttactc aatcctctga
3661 tcagggtgag catcaaactc aaactacgcc ctgatcggcg cactgcgagc agtagcccaa
3721 acaatctcat atgaagtcac cctagccatc attctactat caacattact aataagtggc
3781 tcctttaacc tctccaccct tatcacaaca caagaacacc tctgattact cctgccatca
3841 tgacccttgg ccataatatg atttatctcc acactagcag agaccaaccg aacccccttc
3901 gaccttgccg aaggggagtc cgaactagtc tcaggcttca acatcgaata cgccgcaggc
3961 cccttcgccc tattcttcat agccgaatac acaaacatta ttataataaa caccctcacc
4021 actacaatct tcctaggaac aacatatgac gcactctccc ctgaactcta cacaacatat
4081 tttgtcacca agaccctact tctaacctcc ctgttcttat gaattcgaac agcatacccc
4141 cgattccgct acgaccaact catacacctc ctatgaaaaa acttcctacc actcacccta
4201 gcattactta tatgatatgt ctccataccc attacaatct ccagcattcc ccctcaaacc
4261 taagaaatat gtctgataaa agagttactt tgatagagta aataatagga gcttaaaccc
4321 ccttatttct aggactatga gaatcgaacc catccctgag aatccaaaat tctccgtgcc
4381 acctatcaca ccccatccta aagtaaggtc agctaaataa gctatcgggc ccataccccg
4441 aaaatgttgg ttataccctt cccgtactaa ttaatcccct ggcccaaccc gtcatctact
4501 ctaccatctt tgcaggcaca ctcatcacag cgctaagctc gcactgattt tttacctgag
4561 taggcctaga aataaacatg ctagctttta ttccagttct aaccaaaaaa ataaaccctc
4621 gttccacaga agctgccatc aagtatttcc tcacgcaagc aaccgcatcc ataatccttc
4681 taatagctat cctcttcaac aatatactct ccggacaatg aaccataacc aatactacca
4741 atcaatactc atcattaata atcataatAg ctatagcaat aaaactagga atagccccct
4801 ttcacttctg agtcccagag gttacccaag gcacccctct gacatccggc ctgcttcttc
4861 tcacatgaca aaaactagcc cccatctcaa tcatatacca aatctctccc tcactaaacg
4921 taagccttct cctcactctc tcaatcttat ccatcatagc aggcagttga ggtggattaa
4981 accaAaccca gctacgcaaa atcttagcat actcctcaat tacccacata ggatgaataa
5041 tagcagttct accgtacaac cctaacataa ccattcttaa tttaactatt tatattatcc
5101 taactactac cgcattccta ctactcaact taaactccag caccacgacc ctactactat
5161 ctcgcacctg aaacaagcta acatgactaa cacccttaat tccatccacc ctcctctccc
5221 taggaggcct gcccccgcta accggctttt tgcccaaatg ggccattatc gaagaattca
5281 caaaaaacaa tagcctcatc atccccacca tcatagccac catcaccctc cttaacctct
5341 acttctacct acgcctaatc tactccacct caatcacact actccccata tctaacaacg
5401 taaaaataaa atgacagttt gaacatacaa aacccacccc attcctcccc acactcatcg
5461 cccttaccac gctactccta cctatctccc cttttatact aataatctta tagaaattta
5521 ggttaaatac agaccaagag ccttcaaagc cctcagtaag ttgcaatact taatttctgt
5581 aacagctaag gactgcaaaa ccccactctg catcaactga acgcaaatca gccactttaa
5641 ttaagctaag cccttactag accaatggga cttaaaccca caaacactta gttaacagct
5701 aagcacccta atcaactggc ttcaatctac ttctcccgcc gccgggaaaa aaggcgggag
5761 aagccccggc aggtttgaag ctgcttcttc gaatttgcaa ttcaatatga aaatcacctc
5821 ggagctggta aaaagaggcc taacccctgt ctttagattt acagtccaat gcttcactca
5881 gccattttac ctcaccccca ctgatgttcg ccgaccgttg actattctct acaaaccaca
5941 aagacattgg aacactatac ctattattcg gcgcatgagc tggagtccta ggcacagctc
6001 taagcctcct tattcgagcc gagctgggcc agccaggcaa ccttctaggt aacgaccaca
6061 tctacaacgt tatcgtcaca gcccatgcat ttgtaataat cttcttcata gtaataccca
6121 tcataatcgg aggctttggc aactgactag ttcccctaat aatcggtgcc cccgatatgg
6181 cgtttccccg cataaacaac ataagcttct gactcttacc tccctctctc ctactcctgc
6241 tcgcatctgc tatagtggag gccggagcag gaacaggttg aacagtctac cctcccttag
6301 cagggaacta ctcccaccct ggagcctccg tagacctaac catcttctcc ttacacctag
6361 caggtgtctc ctctatctta ggggccatca atttcatcac aacaattatc aatataaaac
6421 cccctgccat aacccaatac caaacgcccc tcttcgtctg atccgtccta atcacagcag
6481 tcctacttct cctatctctc ccagtcctag ctgctggcat cactatacta ctaacagacc
6541 gcaacctcaa caccaccttc ttcgaccccg ccggaggagg agaccccatt ctataccaac
6601 acctattctg atttttcggt caccctgaag tttatattct tatcctacca ggcttcggaa
6661 taatctccca tattgtaact tactactccg gaaaaaaaga accatttgga tacataggta
6721 tggtctgagc tatgatatca attggcttcc tagggtttat cgtgtgagca caccatatat
6781 ttacagtagg aatagacgta gacacacgag catatttcac ctccgctacc ataatcatcg
6841 ctatccccac cggcgtcaaa gtatttagct gactcgccac actccacgga agcaatatga
6901 aatgatctgc tgcagtgctc tgagccctag gattcatctt tcttttcacc gtaggtggcc
6961 tgactggcat tgtattagca aactcatcac tagacatcgt actacacgac acgtactacg
7021 ttgtagccca cttccactat gtcctatcaa taggagctgt atttgccatc ataggaggct
7081 tcattcactg atttccccta ttctcaggct acaccctaga ccaaacctac gccaaaatcc
7141 atttcactat catattcatc ggcgtaaatc taactttctt cccacaacac tttctcggcc
7201 tatccggaat gccccgacgt tactcggact accccgatgc atacaccaca tgaaacatcc
7261 tatcatctgt aggctcattc atttctctaa cagcagtaat attaataatt ttcatgattt
7321 gagaagcctt cgcttcgaag cgaaaagtcc taatagtaga agaaccctcc ataaacctgg
7381 agtgactata tggatgcccc ccaccctacc acacattcga agaacccgta tacataaaat
7441 ctagacaaaa aaggaaggaa tcgaaccccc caaagctggt ttcaagccaa ccccatggcc
7501 tccatgactt tttcaaaaag gtattagaaa aaccatttca taactttgtc aaagttaaat
7561 tataggctaa atcctatata tcttaatggc acatgcagcg caagtaggtc tacaagacgc
7621 tacttcccct atcatagaag agcttatcac ctttcatgat cacgccctca taatcatttt
7681 ccttatctgc ttcctagtcc tgtatgccct tttcctaaca ctcacaacaa aactaactaa
7741 tactaacatc tcagacgctc aggaaataga aaccgtctga actatcctgc ccgccatcat
7801 cctagtcctc atcgccctcc catccctacg catcctttac ataacagacg aggtcaacga
7861 tccctccctt accatcaaat caattggcca ccaatggtac tgaacctacg agtacaccga
7921 ctacggcgga ctaatcttca actcctacat acttccccca ttattcctag aaccaggcga
7981 cctgcgactc cttgacgttg acaatcgagt agtactcccg attgaagccc ccattcgtat
8041 aataattaca tcacaagacg tcttgcactc atgagctgtc cccacattag gcttaaaaac
8101 agatgcaatt cccggacgtc taaaccaaac cactttcacc gctacacgac cgggggtata
8161 ctacggtcaa tgctctgaaa tctgtggagc aaaccacagt ttcatgccca tcgtcctaga
8221 attaattccc ctaaaaatct ttgaaatagg gcccgtattt accctatagc accccctcta
8281 ccccctctag agcccactgt aaagctaact tagcattaac cttttaagtt aaagattaag
8341 agaaccaaca cctctttaca gtgaaatgcc ccaactaaat actaccgtat ggcccaccat
8401 aattaccccc atactcctta cactattcct catcacccaa ctaaaaatat taaacacaaa
8461 ctaccaccta cctccctcac caaagcccat aaaaataaaa aattataaca aaccctgaga
8521 accaaaatga acgaaaatct gttcgcttca ttcattgccc ccacaatcct aggcctaccc
8581 gccgcagtac tgatcattct atttccccct ctattgatcc ccacctccaa atatctcatc
8641 aacaaccgac taatcaccac ccaacaatga ctaatcaaac taacctcaaa acaaatgata
8701 accatacaca acactaaagg acgaacctga tctcttatac tagtatcctt aatcattttt
8761 attgccacaa ctaacctcct cggactcctg cctcactcat ttacaccaac cacccaacta
8821 tctataaacc tagccatggc catcccctta tgagcgggcA cagtgattat aggctttcgc
8881 tctaagatta aaaatgccct agcccacttc ttaccacaag gcacacctac accccttatc
8941 cccatactag ttattatcga aaccatcagc ctactcattc aaccaatagc cctggccgta
9001 cgcctaaccg ctaacattac tgcaggccac ctactcatgc acctaattgg aagcgccacc
9061 ctagcaatat caaccattaa ccttccctct acacttatca tcttcacaat tctaattcta
9121 ctgactatcc tagaaatcgc tgtcgcctta atccaagcct acgttttcac acttctagta
9181 agcctctacc tgcacgacaa cacataatga cccaccaatc acatgcctat catatagtaa
9241 aacccagccc atgaccccta acaggggccc tctcagccct cctaatgacc tccggcctag
9301 ccatgtgatt tcacttccac tccataacgc tcctcatact aggcctacta accaacacac
9361 taaccatata ccaatgatgg cgcgatgtaa cacgagaaag cacataccaa ggccaccaca
9421 caccacctgt ccaaaaaggc cttcgatacg ggataatcct atttattacc tcagaagttt
9481 ttttcttcgc aggatttttc tgagcctttt accactccag cctagcccct accccccaat
9541 taggagggca ctggccccCa acaggcatca ccccgctaaa tcccctagaa gtcccactcc
9601 taaacacatc cgtattactc gcatcaggag tatcaatcac ctgagctcac catagtctaa
9661 tagaaaacaa ccgaaaccaa ataattcaag cactgcttat tacaatttta ctgggtctct
9721 attttaccct cctacaagcc tcagagtact tcgagtctcc cttcaccatt tccgacggca
9781 tctacggctc aacatttttt gtagccacag gcttccacgg acttcacgtc attattggct
9841 caactttcct cactatctgc ttcatccgcc aactaatatt tcactttaca tccaaacatc
9901 actttggctt cgaagccgcc gcctgatact ggcattttgt agatgtggtt tgactatttc
9961 tgtatgtctc catctattga tgagggtctt actcttttag tataaatagt accgttaact
10021 tccaattaac tagttttgac aacattcaaa aaagagtaat aaacttcgcc ttaattttaa
10081 taatcaacac cctcctagcc ttactactaa taattattac attttgacta ccacaactca
10141 acggctacat agaaaaatcc accccttacg agtgcggctt cgaccctata tcccccgccc
10201 gcgtcccttt ctccataaaa ttcttcttag tagctattac cttcttatta tttgatctag
10261 aaattgccct ccttttaccc ctaccatgag ccctacaaac aactaacctg ccactaatag
10321 ttatgtcatc cctcttatta atcatcatcc tagccctaag tctggcctat gagtgactac
10381 aaaaaggatt agactgaacc gaattggtat atagtttaaa caaaacgaat gatttcgact
10441 cattaaatta tgataatcat atttaccaaa tgcccctcat ttacataaat attatactag
10501 catttaccat ctcacttcta ggaatactag tatatcgctc acacctcata tcctccctac
10561 tatgcctaga aggaataata ctatcgctgt tcattatagc tactctcata accctcaaca
10621 cccactccct cttagccaat attgtgccta ttgccatact agtctttgcc gcctgcgaag
10681 cagcggtggg cctagcccta ctagtctcaa tctccaacac atatggccta gactacgtac
10741 ataacctaaa cctactccaa tgctaaaact aatcgtccca acaattatat tactaccact
10801 gacatgactt tccaaaaaac acataatttg aatcaacaca accacccaca gcctaattat
10861 tagcatcatc cctctactat tttttaacca aatcaacaac aacctattta gctgttcccc
10921 aaccttttcc tccgaccccc taacaacccc cctcctaata ctaactacct gactcctacc
10981 cctcacaatc atggcaagcc aacgccactt atccagtgaa ccactatcac gaaaaaaact
11041 ctacctctct atactaatct ccctacaaat ctccttaatt ataacattca cagccacaga
11101 actaatcata ttttatatct tcttcgaaac cacacttatc cccaccttgg ctatcatcac
11161 ccgatgaggc aaccagccag aacgcctgaa cgcaggcaca tacttcctat tctacaccct
11221 agtaggctcc cttcccctac tcatcgcact aatttacact cacaacaccc taggctcact
11281 aaacattcta ctactcactc tcactgccca agaactatca aactcctgag ccaaCaactt
11341 aatatgacta gcttacacaa tagcttttat agtaaagata cctctttacg gactccactt
11401 atgactccct aaagcccatg tcgaagcccc catcgctggg tcaatagtac ttgccgcagt
11461 actcttaaaa ctaggcggct atggtataat acgcctcaca ctcattctca accccctgac
11521 aaaacacata gcctacccct tccttgtact atccctatga ggcataatta taacaagctc
11581 catctgccta cgacaaacag acctaaaatc gctcattgca tactcttcaa tcagccacat
11641 agccctcgta gtaacagcca ttctcatcca aaccccctga agcttcaccg gcgcagtcat
11701 tctcataatc gcccacgggc ttacatcctc attactattc tgcctagcaa actcaaacta
11761 cgaacgcact cacagtcgca tcataatcct ctctcaagga cttcaaactc tactcccact
11821 aatagctttt tgatgacttc tagcaagcct cgctaacctc gccttacccc ccactattaa
11881 cctactggga gaactctctg tgctagtaac cacgttctcc tgatcaaata tcactctcct
11941 acttacagga ctcaacatac tagtcacagc cctatactcc ctctacatat ttaccacaac
12001 acaatggggc tcactcaccc accacattaa caacataaaa ccctcattca cacgagaaaa
12061 caccctcatg ttcatacacc tatcccccat tctcctccta tccctcaacc ccgacatcat
12121 taccgggttt tcctcttgta aatatagttt aaccaaaaca tcagattgtg aatctgacaa
12181 cagaggctta cgacccctta tttaccgaga aagctcacaa gaactgctaa ctcatgcccc
12241 catgtctaac aacatggctt tctcaacttt taaaggataa cagctatcca ttggtcttag
12301 gccccaaaaa ttttggtgca actccaaata aaagtaataa ccatgcacac tactataacc
12361 accctaaccc tgacttccct aattcccccc atccttacca ccctcgttaa ccctaacaaa
12421 aaaaactcat acccccatta tgtaaaatcc attgtcgcat ccacctttat tatcagtctc
12481 ttccccacaa caatattcat gtgcctagac caagaagtta ttatctcgaa ctgacactga
12541 gccacaaccc aaacaaccca gctctcccta agcttcaaac tagactactt ctccataata
12601 ttcatccctg tagcattgtt cgttacatgg tccatcatag aattctcact gtgatatata
12661 aactcagacc caaacattaa tcagttcttc aaatatctac tcatcttcct aattaccata
12721 ctaatcttag ttaccgctaa caacctattc caactgttca tcggctgaga gggcgtagga
12781 attatatcct tcttgctcat cagttgatga tacgcccgag cagatgccaa cacagcagcc
12841 attcaagcaa tcctatacaa ccgtatcggc gatatcggtt tcatcctcgc cttagcatga
12901 tttatcctac actccaactc atgagaccca caacaaatag cccttctaaa cgctaatcca
12961 agcctcaccc cactactagg cctcctccta gcagcagcag gcaaatcagc ccaattaggt
13021 ctccacccct gactcccctc agccatagaa ggccccaccc cagtctcagc cctactccac
13081 tcaagcacta tagttgtagc aggaatcttc ttactcatcc gcttccaccc cctagcagaa
13141 aatagcccac taatccaaac tctaacacta tgcttaggcg ctatcaccac tctgttcgca
13201 gcagtctgcg cccttacaca aaatgacatc aaaaaaatcg tagccttctc cacttcaagt
13261 caactaggac tcataatagt tacaatcggc atcaaccaac cacacctagc attcctgcac
13321 atctgtaccc acgccttctt caaagccata ctatttatgt gctccgggtc catcatccac
13381 aaccttaaca atgaacaaga tattcgaaaa ataggaggac tactcaaaac catacctctc
13441 acttcaacct ccctcaccat tggcagccta gcattagcag gaataccttt cctcacaggt
13501 ttctactcca aagaccacat catcgaaacc gcaaacatat catacacaaa cgcctgagcc
13561 ctatctatta ctctcatcgc tacctccctg acaagcgcct atagcactcg aataattctt
13621 ctcaccctaa caggtcaacc tcgcttcccc acccttacta acattaacga aaataacccc
13681 accctactaa accccattaa aCgcctggca gccggaagcc tattcgcagg atttctcatt
13741 actaacaaca tttcccccgc atcccccttc caaacaacaa tccccctcta cctaaaactc
13801 acagccctcg ctgtcacttt cctaggactt ctaacagccc tagacctcaa ctacctaacc
13861 aacaaactta aaataaaatc cccactatgc acattttatt tctccaacat actcggattc
13921 taccctagca tcacacaccg cacaatcccc tatctaggcc ttcttacgag ccaaaacctg
13981 cccctactcc tcctagacct aacctgacta gaaaagctat tacctaaaac aatttcacag
14041 caccaaatct ccacctccat catcacctca acccaaaaag gcataattaa actttacttc
14101 ctctctttct tcttcccact catcctaacc ctactcctaa tcacataacc tattcccccg
14161 agcaatctca attacaatat atacaccaac aaacaatgTt caaccagtaa ctactactaa
14221 tcaacgccca taatcataca aagcccccgc accaatagga tcctcccgaa tCaaccctga
14281 cccctctcct tcataaatta ttcagcttcc tacactatta aagtttacca caaccaccac
14341 cccatcatac tctttcaccc acagCacCaa tcctacctcc atcgctaacc ccactaaaac
14401 actcaccaag acctcaaccc ctgaccccca tgcctcagga tactcctcaa tagccatcgc
14461 tgtagtatat ccaaagacaa ccatcattcc ccctaaataa attaaaaaaa ctattaaacc
14521 catataacct cccccaaaat tcagaataat aacacacccg accacaccgc taacaatcaa
14581 tactaaaccc ccataaatag gagaaggctt agaagaaaac cccacaaacc ccattactaa
14641 acccacactc aacagaaaca aagcatacat cattattctc gcacggacta caaccacgac
14701 caatgatatg aaaaaccatc gttgtatttc aactacaaga acaccaatga ccccaatacg
14761 caaaaCtaac cccctaataa aattaattaa ccactcattc atcgacctcc ccaccccatc
14821 caacatctcc gcatgatgaa acttcggctc actccttggc gcctgcctga tcctccaaat
14881 caccacagga ctattcctag ccatgcacta ctcaccagac gcctcaaccg ccttttcatc
14941 aatcgcccac atcactcgag acgtaaatta tggctgaatc atccgctacc ttcacgccaa
15001 tggcgcctca atattcttta tctgcctctt cctacacatc gggcgaggcc tatattacgg
15061 atcatttctc tactcagaaa cctgaaacat cggcattatc ctcctgcttg caactatagc
15121 aacagccttc ataggctatg tcctcccgtg aggccaaata tcattctgag gggccacagt
15181 aattacaaac ttactatccg ccatcccata cattgggaca gacctagttc aatgaatctg
15241 aggaggctac tcagtagaca gtcccaccct cacacgattc tttacctttc acttcatctt
15301 gcccttcatt attgcagccc tagcaAcact ccacctccta ttcttgcacg aaacgggatc
15361 aaacaacccc ctaggaatca cctcccattc cgataaaatc accttccacc cttactacac
15421 aatcaaagac gccctcggct tacttctctt ccttctctcc ttaatgacat taacactatt
15481 ctcaccagac ctcctaggcg acccagacaa ttatacccta gccaacccct taaacacccc
15541 tccccacatc aagcccgaat gatatttcct attcgcctac acaattctcc gatccgtccc
15601 taacaaacta ggaggcgtcc ttgccctatt actatccatc ctcatcctag caataatccc
15661 catcctccat atatccaaac aacaaagcat aatatttcgc ccactaagcc aatcacttta
15721 ttgactccta gccgcagacc tcctcattct aacctgaatc ggaggacaac cagtaagcta
15781 cccttttacc atcattggac aagtagcatc cgtactatac ttcacaacaa tcctaatcct
15841 aataccaact atctccctaa ttgaaaacaa aatactcaaa tgggcctgtc cttgtagtat
15901 aaactaatac accagtcttg taaaccggag atgaaaacct ttttccaagg acaaatcaga
15961 gaaaaagtct ttaactccac cattagcacc caaagctaag attctaattt aaactattct
16021 ctg1ttctttc atggggaagc agatttgggt accacccaag tattgactca cccatcaaca
16081 accgctatgt atttcgtaca ttactgccag ccaccatgaa tattgtacgg taccataaat
16141 acttgaccac ctgtagtaca taaaaaccca atccacatca aaaccccctc cccatgctta
16201 caagcaagta cagcaatcaa ccctcaacta tcacacatca actgcaactc caaagccacc
16261 cctcacccac taggatacca acaaacctac ccacccttaa cagtacatag tacataaagc
16321 catttaccgt acatagcaca ttacagtcaa atcccttctc gtccccatgg atgacccccc
16381 tcagataggg gtcccttgac caccatcctc cgtgaaatca atatcccgca caagagtgct
16441 actctcctcg ctccgggccc ataacacttg ggggtagcta aagtgaactg tatccgacat
16501 ctggttccta cttcagggtc ataaagccta aatagcccac acgttcccct taaataagac
16561 atcacgatg          

 

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Direct Sequencing Information (cont)

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These regions are amplified with PCR and then sequenced 

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HV1 –342 bps (16024-16365)

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HV2 –268 bps (73-340)

 

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Current Sequencing Method

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HL-60 HV1 Reference

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Sensitivity Study

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Gels before sequencing 

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Insufficient bone extraction 

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Completed bone extraction

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First sequence of bone contained a HV2 C-stretch where swab at 263 had a variance from rCRS.

 

The tested party is either excluded as being maternally related (0% chance) or the tested party cannot be excluded as being maternally related.

 

The differences from the rCRS are identified and compared to two different databases for probably of occurrence.  

 

The following formulas are used as shown.

 

 

 

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